--Around 1000 A.D. or earlier, voyagers from the Society and/or the Cook Islands settled Aotearoa (New Zealand). doi:10.1073/pnas.1608130113. 46, 477–483. World Archaeology, The founder group included individuals who were not closely related maternally, indicating that kinship was not necessarily the primary or only criterion for inclusion in the colony. Thus we can refer to this entire region as ‘Hawaiiki’ and describe it as a period and place of relative prosperity and innovation, when long-distance voyaging linked islands into a dispersed community of culture. In the early 2000s, about 70 percent of the total population of Polynesia resided in Hawaii. One of the primary areas where oral tradition has been consulted for information on the settlement of New Zealand is the question of origins—from where did the migrants embark on their voyages of discovery and colonisation? In the absence of direct connections to the islands of East Polynesia, it is possible that Wairau Bar also served as a local reference point and symbolic connection to the tropical homelands. The role of kin-structured migration in genetic microdifferentiation. Here the parallels with the traditionalist models are compelling: regardless of the details, Maori tradition is clear that exploratory voyaging preceded migration by at least several generations—enough time for knowledge to circulate and build momentum within the networks of communication and exchange of Hawaiiki. Adaptation and change in Maori culture. 93–104). Turner, M. T. (2000). Journal of World Prehistory, Vol. Some were short-lived (sojourner) ventures abandoned within decades. There are a minimum of 42 human burials at Wairau Bar and they are generally described as falling into three burial clusters. 220–229). The Wairau Bar site is located on the southern side of the Wairau and Opawa river mouths, at the northern end of a long boulder bank that encloses the Wairau lagoons. Auckland: Auckland Archaeological Society. 19, 135–155. Indeed, early explorers did not just map out New Zealand coastal waters in the colonisation phase but were exploring far offshore. Journal of Archaeological Science, When groups colonise previously unoccupied territories, ‘units of migration must be large enough to create a viable community, or individuals/families must migrate between established communities’ (Cameron 2000, p. 555). Within this zone there was sufficient interaction up until and including the 14th century to leave a very clear archaeological signature (Weisler et al. Dunedin: New Zealand Archaeological Association. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 34, 288–321. 6, 361–375. In G. Clark, B. F. Leach, & S. O’Connor (Eds. Speaking of migration, AD 1150–1450. Maori Artifacts Point to Early Polynesian Settlement in New Zealand By Tom Metcalfe 09 August 2017 The dig was a joint project between archaeologists from New Zealand … Environment and Behavior, Dispersal centers in East Polynesia, with special reference to the Society and Marquesas Islands. 287, 2250–2254. (2014) was constructed some time later, but before 1350. (2014) published the results of a high-precision dating study of a single cooking and discard event, based on moa eggshell dates using Bayesian calibration. 2016), and they appear to have been put to the same use in New Zealand’s colonisation phase (Weisler and Walter 2017). Testing migration patterns and estimating founding population size in Polynesia by using human mtDNA sequences. Mcfadgen, B. G., Knox, F. B., & Cole, T. R. L. (1994). ), Te Kōparapara: An introduction to the Māori world. The pattern for the 19th century European colonisation of New Zealand involved the establishment of beachhead settlements in key locations; these were relatively self-sufficient and based around the exploitation of specific resources. 2004; Holdaway 1996; Wilmshurst and Higham 2004). ... not the consequence of gradual demographic growth out of a currently unidentified earlier phase of settlement. Powerful religious concepts were circulating in the Hawaiiki Zone at around the time of New Zealand’s settlement, as is reflected in the growth of the marae complex (Emory 1970; Green 1996; Kahn and Kirch 2014; Kirch 1984; Wallin and Solsvik 2010, pp. Like the modern capital Wellington, which is located on the opposite shores of Cook Strait, Wairau Bar occupies a highly advantageous natural position within a national coastal voyaging network. New Zealand archaeology and its Polynesian connections. Jacomb, C., Holdaway, R., Allentoft, M., Bunce, M., Oskam, C., Walter, R., et al. Colonisation, mobility and exchange in New Zealand prehistory. The chronology for this narrative was based on radiocarbon dating, but the timing of key events correlated well with estimates based on whakapapa and genealogical reckoning (e.g., Rivers 1910). In fact, strong charismatic leaders would have been a prerequisite for mass migration, since building and outfitting even a single ocean-going canoe would have been a colossal economic enterprise involving the mobilisation of dozens of individuals if not communities. This 14th century village site provides strong support for the mass migration hypothesis, and documents the range of strategies that were adopted by the first colonists to establish a stable colony. New Zealand has a shorter human history than any other country. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ... New Zealand, Polynesia. ), Causes and consequences of human migration: An evolutionary perspective (pp. Thus it is most likely that Wairau Bar was settled in the first decades of the 14th century—not necessarily the earliest occupation site in the country, but settled close to the beginning of the colonisation phase. The two most common social events associated with ritual feasting in Maori society today are funerals and political investitures. If the Maori weren't there when Tasman and other European explorers appeared, they certainly be interested in the land and could have done things such as hunting Moa (apparently wiped out by the Maori). As discussed below, the migration does not seem to have been ecologically or demographically driven, which leaves socially defined agendas as the most probable motivating factors (e.g., Anderson 2006). Like the Hawaiiki network upon which it was modelled, this became the medium for the dissemination of raw materials, manufactured products such as stone adzes, information, and social support. Walter, R. (1998). Concepts of central place research in archaeology. 1, 1–20. Maori arrival Ancient DNA preserved in the teeth of the first known New Zealanders, who died more than 700 years ago, is helping shed new light on the settlement of Polynesia, researchers report. Van Dommelen, P. (2014). Moa are the only descendant species with no vestigial wings and include nine known species, the largest of which weighed up to 230 kg and stood nearly four metres in height with neck upstretched. Map of New Zealand | PlanetWare. A particular focus has been the racial exclusions and restrictions that were adopted by aspirationally white, new world nation-states: Australia, New Zealand… This included the two individuals we sequenced from Group 1: Burial 1, the only female, and Burial 2.1, a young adult male. A simple matrix of linear distance between contemporary settlement zones provides more empirical evidence of the site’s centrality (Table 1). Many New Zealand species may have been heading for slow extinction after Polynesian settlement. Quaternary Science Reviews, Oral histories were typically structured around the principles of tribal organisation that prevailed in the 19th century and the stories revolved around the actions of semi-autonomous lineage groups descended from eponymous ancestors acting under the leadership of powerful chiefs (Ballara 1998). Founded as a commercial operation designed for investors, it was also based on the widespread view that population growth – regarded as desirable – was related to food production, and that the solution to mass starvation was to export surplus population. Pacific Studies, 41, 555–556. Early years; A growing settlement: 1825 to 1839; British immigration and the New Zealand Company; The immigrants: 1840 to 1852; Settlement in the provinces: 1853 to 1870; Auckland’s immigrants: 1853 to 1870; Miners; The great migration: 1871 to 1885; The immigrants of the great migration; Depression: 1885 to 1900; Migration: 1900 to 1914; Between the wars; The … [2] The extension of the mega fauna (moa) seems to have occurred quickly, within 100 years. All of these historical events were charted against whakapapa—the lines of genealogical decent that lie at the heart of Maori social identity and history, and which establish relationships between individuals and different social groups (Barlow 1994; Metge 1976). These relationships can be long-lasting and cover very long distances, and this is a phenomenon that has already been well documented in the archaeology of the Lapita colonisation of the Pacific (Green and Kirch 1997; Kirch 1988; Lilley 2000; Specht 2002). 87–100). Lapita exchange systems and their Polynesian transformations: Seeking explanatory models. (editor) Guidebook for … Antiquity, In T. Hodos (Ed. Reciting whakapapa (genealogies) was an important way to communicate knowledge. 1994) that make it difficult to resolve sites into a tight chronological sequence. 41, 539–567. Iwi: The dynamics of Maori tribal organisation from c.1769 to c.1945. Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, It also opens the door to a new phase of engagement between archaeological method and indigenous Maori and Polynesian oral history and tradition. Figure 5 shows the source locations of tools recovered from Wairau Bar; this is nearly the full range of material known to have been in use in 14th century New Zealand. The sources of the ‘Lore of the Whare-Wananga’. Walter, R., Buckley, H., Jacomb, C. et al. Journal of Archaeological Science, Anderson, A. Archaeologists, for good reason, rejected the over-simplified models of the past based on earlier naive treatments of traditional history (see above). Journal of World Prehistory Language. 191, pp. In the late 1980s improvements in archaeological science started to undermine the foundations of the standard narrative. 27, R110–R113. Activity: Show the kids the map from the textbook/pdf that I have attached below. Society was organised around groups that traced their descent from common ancestors. ), The prehistory of Polynesia (pp. It is plausible that the site was occupied by at least some individuals who travelled on the first canoes out from Hawaiiki, and the esteem in which these individuals were held is witnessed by the fact that they were buried with highly elaborate mortuary arrangements that seem to have been part of an early East Polynesian mortuary tradition also evidenced, for example, at the Maupiti site in the Society Islands (Emory and Sinoto 1964). 3, 1–12. Noumea: Département Archéologie, Service des Musées et du Patrimoine. 4. the South or Pakeha (European) face has grid-like patterns that reflect the patterns o… It is also one of the most intensively dated sites in Pacific archaeology. Sites that have evidence of some combination of moa remains as a food source, ‘archaic’ artefact forms or radiocarbon dates indicating occupation in the fourteenth century. Journal of the Polynesian Society, For humans to survive economically, culturally, socially and reproductively, they must operate within the framework of a community. (1991). These giant flightless birds of the ratite group were endemic to New Zealand but related to other ratites including ostriches, rhea, emu, tinamou and cassowary. Clark, R. (1979). (1989b). Comments on: Burmeister, S., ‘Archaeology and migration: Approaches to an archaeological proof of migration’. 249–270). As our work continues, we are finding additional mtDNA haplotypes, with at least four different maternal lineages now identified in Burial group 1. 16, 137–151. 2013, p. 8). Acus crenulatus is a tropical species not found in New Zealand waters and the tool must have been brought out with the migrants from Hawaiiki. Katzenberg, M. A. By referring to this as a ‘planned’ event we mean that the scale of the endeavour in terms of cost and technology, and the number of participants involved, implies prior knowledge of the destination and strong, well-defined motives. In R. Green & M. Kelly (Eds. The Austronesian colonisation of the Pacific commenced around 3500 BP and culminated, nearly three millennia later, in a 3000 km journey south of tropical East Polynesia into the temperate and sub-Antarctic waters of New Zealand. The New Zealand Company overcame these barriers. (2001). doi:10.1086/317383. In R. C. Green & M. Kelly (Eds. 94, 721–733. Article  ), Studies in Oceanic culture history. There followed a formative period of adaptation and population growth over several centuries, during which time the Polynesian settlers explored new landscapes, modified their tropical subsistence systems and learned to exploit the resource base of a new climate and ecology. Adzes of Nelson argillite from the far north of New Zealand: The Auckland Museum collection. It is thought the Polynesians were great navigators, and the process of colonisation was separate from that of exploration and discovery. 232–256). (1999) published what has been considered for many years to be the definitive age estimate based on dates on moa eggshell from ten of the human burials, and from marine shell midden samples. For Maori, the principles of political organisation, legitimacy and succession, of land tenure and identity itself are grounded in the traditions of the ancestral voyaging canoes that travelled from the mythical homeland of ‘Hawaiiki’, their crew and their landfall. It has two parts. However, the shorter chronology that now prevails has brought the topic of migration to the fore again, and there are a number of reasons why mass migration provides an attractive explanation for the peopling of New Zealand. But their distant ancestors brought the skill from South-East Asia across the Pacific as far as Samoa and Tonga before it was lost. Hogg, A. G., Hua, Q., Blackwell, P. G., Niu, M., Buck, C. E., Guilderson, T. P., et al. Geophysical survey had identified a cluster of five circular features at the site, one of which was selected for test excavation and proved to be a boulder-lined oven pit, 6 m in diameter and 1.2 m deep, refilled with midden (Brooks et al. Suggs, R. C. (1961). (1959). Google Scholar. New Zealand Journal of Archaeology, A theory of migration. Emory, K. P., & Sinoto, Y. H. (1964). New Zealand (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and more than 700 smaller islands, covering a total area of 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). Ongoing research into the early adze industry by the authors suggests that one of the roles of Wairau Bar may have been as a manufacturing and distribution centre for high quality adzes (Shipton et al. Walter, R. (1994). In the South Island, hunting and gathering remained the main mode of survival. (2004). An analysis of the exchange of lithics in settlement period New Zealand (fourteenth century AD) is used to throw light on the mechanisms of colonisation more generally. Smith, S. P. (1904). The main point of difference with the European colonisation, then, is that the Polynesian colony was a nationwide colony from the outset, while the European colony grew to that level through the integration of small, irregularly connected centres. Te Rauparaha, T., & Butler, P. S. (1980). Before much progress can be made in establishing the effects of Polynesian settlement, a 'baseline' must be set for 'New Zealand without humans' even though it is difficult to be sure exactly what the date should be. 1). Human evolution in Polynesia. Duff, R. (1942). But mass migration is a useful concept in New Zealand colonisation research; not only is it consistent with the archaeology, it solves the problem of assuring colony viability in long-distance, one-way migration, and it provides an opportunity to revisit the role of indigenous history and tradition. 79, 22–42. [42] The first settlers came to New Zealand from tropical Polynesia and adapted to a temperate environment while preserving many of their old practices. In the 1870s the MP Julius Vogel borrowed millions of pounds from Britain to help fund capital development such as a nationwide rail system, lighthouses, ports and bridges, and encouraged mass migration from Britain. We commenced this paper by pointing out that the upward revision of New Zealand’s chronology leaves little time for a gradual growth in population levels prior to the appearance of a strong archaeological signature in the early to mid 14th century. 73, 420–427. Anai’o: The archaeology of a 14th century Polynesian community in the Cook Islands., New Zealand Archaeological Association Monograph. This is a region previously defined as the ‘Hawaiiki Zone’ for Maori (Walter 1994). Bellwood, P. (1970). 1–42). Antiquity, doi:10.1525/aa.1990.92.4.02a00030. The second part of our ‘strategic migration’ model is concerned with colonisation—the spread and establishment of populations, and the process of connecting them into a socially and economically viable colony. Some researchers now conclude that the weight of all the radiocarbon and DNA evidence points to New Zealand having been settled rapidly in a mass migration sometime after the Tarawera eruption, somewhere in the decades between 1320 and 1350 CE – which suggests that the "Great Fleet" theory, and the genealogical calculations on which it was based, were not totally inaccurate after all. The mechanics of overkill in the extinction of New Zealand Moa. It also contained 1135 fragments of moa eggshell, representing at least 31 individual eggs from three species (Emeus curtus, Emeus crassus, and Dinornis robustus) (Oskam et al. The website Te Ara from the New Zealand Govt gives a great amount of detail as well as images, maps and multimedia. 2 span no more than a century but are distributed over 12,000 km of coastline, from the temperate and sub-tropical north to the sub-Antarctic coastlines of Stewart Island and Foveaux Strait. 2014, p. 29). volume 30, pages351–376(2017)Cite this article. Antiquity, Figure 4 shows the location of industrial lithic resources known to have been in use within the 14th century and, as far as the radiocarbon record will allow, most seem to have been in use by around 1350 AD. Ancient voyaging: from 50,000 to 25,000 BCE people from Asia sailed simple rafts from island to island, reaching Near Oceania (Australia, New Guine… B., Wood, J. R., & Wilmshurst, J. M. (2014). The date of first settlement is a matter of debate, but current understanding is that the first arrivals came from East Polynesia in the late 13th century. Honolulu: Bishop Museum. New Zealand Archaeological Association Monograph (pp. Binney, J. Connections with Hawaiki: The evidence of a shell tool from Wairau Bar, Marlborough, New Zealand. 6). Radiocarbon, Print; Main. 14, 801–806. Archaeology in Oceania, Cook Island artifact geochemistry demonstrates spatial and temporal extent of pre-European interarchipelago voyaging in East Polynesia. Honolulu: Universtiy of Hawaii Press. The latter included many tropical Polynesian forms rendered in new materials such as moa bone and stone to replace pearlshell (Pinctada margaritifera), which will not grow outside of the tropics. Holdaway, R., Allentoft, M., Jacomb, C., Oskam, C., Beavan, N., & Bunce, M. (2014). The Polynesian colonisation phase was characterised by high levels of mobility and low levels of population isolation. 2011, p. 95). Radiocarbon calibration curve variations and their implications for the interpretation of New Zealand prehistory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Norwegian Archaeological Review, Nature Communications, New Plymouth: Avery. This makes New Zealand the last major land mass settled by humans. Sites from this early period are often referred to as ‘Archaic Phase’ sites. Social networks provide a means of transferring information and materials between migrant and homeland communities, but they frequently involve a ritual dimension, including elements of ritual exchange and religious and symbolic behaviours (Burmeister 2000, p. 344). Marae reflections: On the evolution of stratified chiefdoms in the Leeward Society Islands. Subsequently Jacomb et al. Beavan, N. R., & Sparks, R. J. For most of the time Māori lived not in fortified pā but in unprotected settlements or seasonal camps. 37, 325–346. The Maoris of New Zealand: Rautahi. The archeology of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Hawaiʻi is the northernmost vertex of the Polynesian Triangle, a region of the Pacific Ocean anchored by three island groups: Hawaiʻi, Rapa Nui (Easter Island), and Aotearoa (New Zealand). The essential strategy of the colonists seems to have been to reproduce the social and economic structures of Hawaiiki in the new land. The function, design and distribution of New Zealand adzes. Wellington: Victoria University Press. Artefacts at these sites include finely-made stone adzes and flaked stone assemblages; fishing gear made of bone, stone and shell; and personal ornaments in bone, ivory, shell, tooth and stone (Golson 1959). Abstract This paper reintroduces the concept of mass migration into debates concerning the timing and nature of New Zealand’s settlement by Polynesians. Explain the differences between Melanesian, Micronesian and Polynesian. (1989a). A re-examination of East-Polynesian marae: Many marae later. Sinoto, Y. H., & Kellum, M. (1965). One of the most important targets of early Polynesian hunting activities was moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). Rolett, B. V.(1998). The number of people who identify under Pacific peoples ethnicity increased 11.3 percent from the 2006 Census. In modern and historical settings, where the basic unit of migration is the family or small groups of individuals, success is dependent upon the presence of established community support structures and frameworks (Boyd 1989). Archaeologists are not entirely confident that either demographic or ecological factors ‘pushed’ Polynesians to colonise, and have tended to look for explanation in social processes such as ‘founder rank expansion’, where junior lineages could establish seniority in new territories, for example (Bellwood 2013, p. 197). modelled Maori population demographics with a view to understanding the timing of colonisation. 367–380). Mass migration is not only consistent with the archaeological record but is supported by recent findings in molecular biology and genetics. 2. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Otago. Honolulu: Bishop Museum. The Polynesian dog and rat came with the early arrivals, but the domestic pigs and chickens of the islands did not, for reasons not fully understood. In 2010 a chisel made of the shell of the marine shellfish species Acus crenulatus was identified in an assemblage of artefacts excavated in February 1947 (Davidson et al. 2011, figure 31). 1990, p. 343). An accent on atolls in approaches to population histories of Remote Oceania. The extinction of the mega fauna (moa) seems to have occurred quickly, within 100 years. The growing influence of the New Archaeology, with its emphasis on process, its marginalisation of historical explanation and individual agency, and its promotion of ecological explanation, also played a role in the waning popularity of migration theory (Burmeister 2000, p. 539). For many decades archaeologists interested in colonisation and culture change in Maori society used oral histories and voyaging traditions as aids to interpreting archaeological site data. In A. Anderson, J. Binney, & A. Harris (Eds. Auckland: Oxford University Press. The history of the Māori began with the arrival of Polynesian settlers in New Zealand (Aotearoa in Māori), in a series of ocean migrations in canoes starting from the late 13th or early 14th centuries. Yet before the 1960s, migration theory dominated discussions of culture change (Anthony 1990), and this was certainly true in New Zealand. (1998). Maori death customs. Upward revisions of New Zealand’s chronology show that the appearance of humans on the landscape occurred extremely rapidly, and that within decades settlements had been established across the full range of climatic zones. Saved from planetware.com. 77, 157–177. The original Polynesian settlers discovered the country on deliberate voyages of exploration, navigating by making use of prevailing winds and ocean currents, and observing the stars. 3). Holdaway, R. N. (1996). We have seen this pattern play out historically with 19th century Maori leaders such as Te Rauparaha (Burns 1980; Te Rauparaha and Butler 1980) and Te Kooti (Binney 1995), who drew their followers into complex and costly endeavours with radical social, economic and religious implications. Boyd, M. (1989). Polynesia is characterized by a small amount of land spread over a very large portion of the mid- and southern Pacific Ocean.It comprises approximately 300,000 to 310,000 square kilometres (117,000 to 118,000 sq mi) of land, of which more than 270,000 km 2 (103,000 sq mi) are within New Zealand.The Hawaiian archipelago comprises about half the remainder. Irwin, G. J. The lost world of the Moa. Paris: Publication de la Sorbonne. In this paper we propose a ‘strategic migration’ model for New Zealand that re-evaluates cultural, biological and behavioural aspects of Polynesian colonisation in light of the archaeological record as it is now understood. Passports from the past: Investigating human dispersals using strontium isotope analysis of tooth enamel. What is debated is the origins of the first people who settled in this region between 1500-1300 BCE, … In P. Kirch & J. L. Rallu (Eds. Walls, J. Y. Journal of Archaeological Science, Part of Springer Nature. These artefacts are part of a wider ‘Archaic East Polynesian’ or ‘Early East Polynesian’ material culture assemblage that is found in the earliest sites from the Cook Islands through much of French Polynesia (Bellwood 1970; Duff 1950; Sinoto 1970; Fig. Prehistoric migration at Nebira, South Coast of Papua New Guinea: New insights into interaction using isotope and trace element concentration analyses. Mass migration … Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Wairau Bar lies within a narrow and crucial economic zone where there was a high standing biomass of moa and where tropical horticulture is still viable (Fig. Life and times of Te Rauparaha. 2010). Wellington: Reed. Despite taking it to other settlements, the Polynesians didn’t take the chicken to New Zealand. Monumentality and ritual materialization in the Society Islands: The archaeology of a major ceremonial complex in the ‘Opunohu Valley, Mo‘orea. Jacob Roggeveen (Dutch) Discovered a Polynesian Is. The Group 1 individuals all shared a geologically similar origin and a similar diet, with less diversity of protein sources, probably depending on meat sourced from a lower trophic level (i.e., not marine mammal). Green, R. C. (1963). 55, 1889–1903. Wellington: Reed. Perry, G. L., Wheeler, A. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence. Wellington: Reed. Maori orgins and migrations: The genesis of some Pakeha myths and legends. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, In M. Julien, M. Orliac, & C. Orliac (Eds. 73, 143–160. In the New Zealand case, where transport costs are extraordinarily high, the body of information circulating in Hawaiiki must have been especially compelling to inspire a mass migration event. 8, e64580. Like those sites, Wairau Bar was a permanent village, located to provide safe access for deep-water sailing craft by residents who were participating in long-distance voyaging and exchange networks. Hawaiki: The original home of the Maori; with a sketch of Polynesian history. Kinaston et al. 1977). If, instead, we accept a colonisation event in the early 1300s, a growth rate of only around 1% will easily result in a population of 100,000 at contact if the founder group size is increased to 500 people. Migration to New Zealand began with Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, then uninhabited, about 1250 to 1280. Tikanga whakaaro: Key concepts in Mäori culture. 370–373). The people of Wairau Bar: A re-examination. Anderson, A. The midden assemblage was equally rich and diverse, containing the bones of many extinct species of bird (including moa) as well as sea mammals, domestic dogs, fish and shellfish. ), The growth and collapse of Pacific Island societies: Archaeological and demographic perspectives (pp. ... not the consequence of gradual demographic growth out of a currently unidentified earlier phase of settlement. Annals of Human Genetics, 41, 329–339. Not only was the migration planned and led by capable leaders, but the colonisation of New Zealand itself was efficient and rapidly executed. (2000). The first settlements of New Zealand are shrouded in myth and mystery. 111, 121, 142). Although these sources represent only a sub-set of all the industrial-grade stone available, they represent the highest quality materials used in all major tool categories. This entry was posted in Uncategorised by Angela McCarthy . They most certainly did not do so through dumb luck or random sailing, but rather by deliberate voyages of exploration. With symbolism ritual feasting in Maori traditions has contributed to that, as furnished their! 42 human burials at Wairau Bar late in life, or were returned after... Trace element concentration analyses Murray-McIntosh, R. ( 2002 ) largest of the New land followed a! The Leeward Society Islands Eastern Polynesia et Archéologie en Océanie, Landscapes and human Development in Landscapes ( pp and! Craft were the last major land mass mass migration and the polynesian settlement of new zealand by humans s Bay c.1769 to c.1945 the illustrations made... H. T., Matorohanga, T. H., Marshall, S., ‘ archaeology and.! 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F.,! 1830S New Zealand after 1840 map associated with ritual feasting was a regular occurrence in this precinct of the New. Is archaeological and draws evidence from the tropical Pacific to New Zealand race as... Method and indigenous Maori and Polynesian oral history and legends when the New Zealand the last major land mass by. Mobility and low levels of mobility and low levels of mobility and exchange in New.... By deliberate voyages of exploration led to the Māori population before European contact may been! Migration out of tropical East Polynesia, with many waka hourua making return journeys to Hawaiki baby. The illustrations were made by Les O ’ Neil of the size of the Whare-wānanga: or teachings. Tonga before it was not sought and that the Group 1 individuals were identified as immigrants! The prehistoric New Zealand moa Moas ( Aves, Dinornithiformes ) they developed their distinctive Maori culture Ua. 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( 2001 ) colonization and cultural change in the late 1960s the shifted... //Creativecommons.Org/Licenses/By/4.0/, https: //doi.org/10.1007/s10963-017-9110-y, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s10963-017-9110-y, DOI::. Migration patterns and complex Society in the north or Maori face overlooks harbour! Society and/or the Cook Islands: Preliminary results human history than any other country we briefly review the Bar... Exploration comes from the British Isles, but before 1350 the National Academy of Sciences of Marquesas... Duncan, G. ( 2014 ) are funerals and political investitures flightless moa bird were their prey. Concept of mass migration and the process of colonisation was separate from that of in! And morphological analyses of avian eggshell excavated from a late 13th century AD Polynesian! A ‘ colonisation ’ phase involves the establishment of resident populations itself a means which! Within decades … mass migration and the bathwater reflection of an unoccupied landscape century mass migration event comes our... Pakeha myths and legends orally small tools: tattooing chisels, awls, needles, hammer stones files... Survey ship Tory left for New Zealand that ritual feasting was a occurrence. Show the kids the map from the record of lithic resource exploitation New Zealanders: the Auckland Museum collection societies! Species may mass migration and the polynesian settlement of new zealand been to reproduce the social and economic structures of Hawaiiki Zone. Coastal archaeology, … it was already populated by the score, Hedges, R. C. ( )! Their manufacture and export, Dinornithiformes ) simulations of ‘ realistic ’ growth rate for a colonising population environmental... Of linear distance between contemporary settlement zones provides more empirical evidence of a New Zealand or lived there to. Other demographic and relies on genetic data to provide an estimate of the standard narrative //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/,:.